实验室目标和宗旨

周晓林教授领导的脑与语言认知实验室力图揭示人类自然语言加工的认知与神经机制。当前实验室研究的问题是汉语句子与段落加工的认知表征与神经过程,涉及到汉语的句法、语义、语用和韵律信息如何被加工和利用,以及它们之间相互作用的机制。我们试图从行为和神经层面,揭示各种语言学现象背后的心理与神经现实性,同时探讨语言加工系统与其他高级认知加工系统,比如与执行功能以及与社会认知之间的关系。

 

研究手段和技术路线

1. 眼球运动追踪(Eye-tracking——对文本阅读中的眼动控制进行记录,除常规记录外,还采用更先进的边界范式进行精确的信息控制。后者的特点是计算机会根据被试加工信息的状况,及时改变呈现在屏幕上的刺激。该技术能较好地模拟自然状态的阅读过程;

2. 事件相关电位(ERP——在头皮表面记录被试对呈现刺激的脑电活动反应,该技术有较高的时间分辨率,较好地反映语言加工过程的时间进程;

3. 功能核磁共振成像(fMRI——记录被试在刺激呈现时大脑血氧水平的变化,该技术有较高的空间分辨率,能较精确地定位语言活动脑区。

 

当前研究内容

1)  汉语不同层级语言结构的句法和语义加工

人类与高级灵长类动物在语言能力上的核心差异在于是否具有加工复杂、层级化结构的能力。人类在进化的过程中发展出递归的能力来对复杂短语结构进行加工,因而在种系发生的过程中,人类的大脑也相应发展出新皮层来负责这一重要的语言功能。我们试图从神经层面回答:不同层级(单层级vs多层级)句法结构加工背后的神经活动以及功能定位是否不同?不同层级句法水平上的语义整合是否表现出不同的认知与神经机制?高低层级句法水平上的语义整合过程之间如何发生交互作用?

 

2)  语言理解与执行功能的关系

人类在面临冲突情境时会动用高级执行功能(比如抑制、更新和监控机制)来解决这一冲突。我们关心在语言理解的任务中,当句法信息与语义信息之间,预期与整合通路之间,语义与韵律线索之间产生冲突的时候,人们是动用领域一般性的(general)还是语言特异性的(specific)执行功能来解决冲突?在执行功能任务中表现出行为差异的被试在理解包含冲突信息的句子时是否表现出不同的神经过程?人们在解决不同类型的语言冲突时,在多大程度上采用相同或不同的神经机制?

 

3)  汉语韵律节奏模式的加工

节奏模式来源于轻重音的交替。汉语的节奏模式变化体现为音段长短的排列。节奏模式在汉语中有着很重要的地位。首先,节奏模式限制了汉语的构词、构语。其次,节奏模式也是展现语言表现力的关键。我们常常在自然言语中运用音段长短的对立、以及周期性有规律的序列来构成语言的抑扬顿挫,甚至表达某种结构或语义关系。我们关心中国人在加工韵律节奏时表现出怎么样的神经过程?以及韵律节奏模式的加工如何与语义和句法过程加工之间进行交互作用?

 

4)  语义焦点与语义辖域(semantic scope)的加工

人类语言交际最重要的功能之一就是通过一系列外部线索获得话语的精确含义。在说话过程中,说话人往往需要突出一些重要的信息,隐藏另一些不重要的信息;在理解说话的过程中,理解者往往需要利用一系列的外部线索(比如焦点线索),来保持和说话人有关重要信息的一致性。运用焦点结构在实际的语用中能够更好地引起听者的注意,使听者能够迅速了解说话者想要强调的部分,从而高效地传达说话者想要传达的信息。语义焦点的两个最重要的语义特征是反预期语用尺度,分别反映了人类语言交际中的强调功能和预设功能。我们关心汉语中语义焦点信息如何影响句子理解过程?反预期和预期的神经机制是否相同?语用尺度如何在神经活动上进行表征?汉语和印欧语最大的差异在于其缺乏形态标记的句法信息,汉语句子成分间通过约束和管辖方式进行联系(语义辖域范畴),包括全称量词、动词、关联词、否定词等对汉语句子特定成分的语义约束和管辖,我们关心人们在加工语义辖域与词汇语义制约关系时有什么样不同的神经机制?动词因果性或反身性是否会影响指代歧义消解的加工?逻辑关联词和否定信息如何促进或者阻碍句子语义表征的建立?

 

5)  语言理解过程中情绪和社会信息的加工

 

为了促进人与人之间的交流、实现有效的沟通,人们在话语中通过韵律或修辞来传递情感信息,并达到一定的语用效果。在人际沟通的过程中,会话参与者本身的特点、会话的场合和共有知识都会影响听话人的言语理解和说话人的言语产生。情绪和社会信息都是语言核心系统外部的重要变量(又被称为语用信息),我们关心不同类型的语用信息在神经活动上如何表征?当语用信息与句法或语义信息不一致时,有什么样的认知和神经过程参与?

 

6)  汉语阅读文本过程中的眼动控制机制

在自然语言理解中,印欧语阅读者利用词汇边界对文本进行切分,而汉语与其他语言最大的不同在于词汇之间没有边界,我们关心中文读者是否在缺乏明显词边界的线索时仍然选择词汇单元来进行眼跳?前视野阅读是指信息在关键词的前一个词汇单元上得到部分的预加工,我们关心中文读者是否在前视野中加工语义信息?韵律边界的切分是否会影响前视野中语义信息的获得?以及其他类型的语义信息(包括逻辑语义运算)是否能够在前视野中得到加工?

 

实验室科研队伍

博士后:阎鸣

博士生:叶铮、蒋晓鸣、罗颖艺、邱寅晨(东南)

硕士生:张洋、李晓倩

本科生:李奕、诸梦妍、于宏波、龚兰蕴

以往成员:张亚旭、庄捷、曲延轩、曾飚、赛晓光、玛依拉·亚克甫、沙淑颖、李恋敬、彭晓哲、易莉、潭滢滢、李嘉

 

主要研究成果

Luo, Y. & Zhou, X. (submitted). ERP evidence for the online processing of rhythmic pattern during Chinese sentence reading.

Yan, M., Kliegl, R., Shu, H., Pan, J., & Zhou, X. (submitted). Parafoveal load of word n+1 modulates preprocessing of word n+2.

Zhou, X., & Marslen-Wilson, W. D. (in press). Pseudohomophone effects in processing Chinese compound words. Language and Cognitive Processes.

Ye, Z., & Zhou, X. (2009). Executive control in language processing. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews.

Jiang, X., Tan, Y., & Zhou, X. (2009). Processing the universal quantifier during sentence comprehension: ERP evidence. Neuropsychologia.

Jiang, X., & Zhou, X. (2009). Processing different levels of syntactic hierarchy: an ERP study on Chinese. Neuropsychologia, 46, 1282-1293.

Ye, Z., & Zhou, X. (2008). Involvement of cognitive control in sentence comprehension: Evidence from ERPs, Brain Research, 1203, 103-115.

Meng, X., Tian, X., Shu, H., Jian, J., & Zhou, X. (2008). ERP correlates of the development of orthographical and phonological processing during Chinese sentence reading. Brain Research, 1219, 91-102.

Ye, Z., Zhan, W., & Zhou, X. (2007). The semantic processing of syntactic structure in sentence comprehension: An ERP study. Brain Research, 1142, 135-145.

Meng, X., Tian X., Jian, J., & Zhou, X. (2007). Orthographic and phonological processing in Chinese dyslexic children: An ERP study on sentence reading. Brain Research, 1179, 119-130.

Ye, Z., Luo, Y.-J., Friederici, A. D., & Zhou, X. (2006). Semantic and syntactic processing in Chinese sentence comprehension: Evidence from event-related potentials. Brain Research, 1071, 186-196.

Meng, X., Sai, X., Wang, C., Wang, J., Sha, S., & Zhou, X. (2005). Auditory and speech processing and reading development in Chinese school children: Behavioural and ERP evidence. Dyslexia, 11, 292–310.

Grabe, E., Rosner, B. S., Garcia-Albea, J. E., & Zhou, X. (2003). Perception of English intonation by English, Spanish, and Chinese listeners. Language & Speech, 46, 375-401.

Zhou, X. (2002). Processing Chinese Words and Characters. In Stiftung Lesen (Ed.), Gutenbergs Folgen (pp. 215- 237). Baden-Baden, Germany: Nomos Verlagsgeellschaft.

Zhou, X. & Marslen-Wilson, W. (2000). The relative time course of semantic and phonological activation in reading Chinese. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 26,1245-1265.

Zhou, X. & Marslen-Wilson, W. (2000). Lexical representation of compound words: Cross-linguistic evidence. Psychologia, 43, 47-66.

Zhou, X., & Marslen-Wilson, W. (1999). The nature of sublexical processing in reading Chinese characters. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 25, 819-837.

Zhou, X., & Marslen-Wilson, W. (1999). Phonology, orthography, and lexical semantic activation in reading Chinese. Journal of Memory and Language, 41, 579-606.

Zhou, X., Marslen-Wilson, W., Taft, M., & Shu, H. (1999). Morphology, orthography, and phonology in reading Chinese. Language and Cognitive Processes, 14, 525-565.

Marslen-Wilson, W., & Zhou, X. (1999). Abstractness, allomorphy, and lexical architecture. Language and Cognitive Processes, 14, 321-352.

Wu, N., Shu, H., & Zhou, X. (1999). The nature and development of sublexical processing in reading Chinese. Language and Cognitive Processes, 14, 503-524.

Chen H.-C. & Zhou, X. (1999). Processing East Asian Languages. Special issue of Language and Cognitive Processes, Psychological Press.

Zhou, X., Shu, H., Bi, Y., & Sh-i, D. (1999). Is there phonologically mediated access to lexical semantics in reading Chinese? In J. Wang, A. Inhoff, & H.-C. Chen (Eds.) Reading Chinese script: A cognitive analysis (pp. 135-172). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum

Zhou, X., & Marslen-Wilson, W. (1999). Sublexical processing in reading Chinese characters. In J. Wang, A. Inhoff, & H.-C. Chen (Eds.) Reading Chinese script: A cognitive analysis (pp. 37-64). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Zhou, X., & Marslen-Wilson, W. (1997). Spread of activation in the mental lexicon. In M. G. Shafto, & P. Langley (eds.), Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp.838-843)NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Zhou, X., & Marslen-Wilson, W. (1997). Sublexical processing in reading Chinese. In M. G. Shafto, & P. Langley (eds.), Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp.832-837). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Marslen-Wilson, W., M. Ford., & Zhou, X. (1997). Modality-specific lexical access? In M. G. Shafto, & P. Langley (eds.), Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp.490-495). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Zhou, X., & Marslen-Wilson, W. (1997). The abstractness of phonological representation in the Chinese mental lexicon. In H.-C. Chen (Ed). Cognitive Processing of Chinese and other Asian languages (pp. 3-26), Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press.

Marslen-Wilson, W., Zhou, X., & Ford, M. (1996). Modularity, morphology, and cognitive architecture. Yearbook of Morphology, 117-134.

Zhou, X., & Marslen-Wilson, W. (1996). Direct visual access is the only way to access the Chinese mental lexicon. In G. W. Cottrell (Ed.) Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp.714-719). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Marslen-Wilson, W., Ford, M., Older, L., & Zhou, X. (1996). The combinatorial lexicon: Affixes as processing structures. In G. W. Cottrell (Ed.) Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp.223-227). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Zhou, X., & Marslen-Wilson, W. (1995). Morphological structure in the Chinese mental lexicon. Language and Cognitive Processes10, 545-600.

Zhou, X., & Marslen-Wilson, W. (1994). Words, morphemes and syllables in the Chinese mental lexicon. Language and Cognitive Processes9, 393-422.

Zhou, X., Ostrin, R. K., & Tyler, L. K., (1993). The noun-verb problem and Chinese aphasia: Comments on Bates et al. (1991). Brian and Language45, 86-93.


2018-05-28