phone: (86-10) 6275-6804

09/1989 - 07/1994 Ph.D. (Department of Psychology, Carleton University)
09/1985 - 07/1988 M.Sc. (Department of Psychology, Peking University)
09/1981 - 07/1985 B.Sc. (Department of Psychology, Peking University)


08/2007 - Present Member of Editorial Board of Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews (the official journal of the International Behavioral Neuroscience Society)



  • Acta Acustica United with Acustica;
  • Brain;
  • Brain Research;
  • Brain Structure and Function;
  • Canadian Acoustics;
  • Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences;
  • Cerebral Cortex
  • Clinical Neurophysiology;
  • Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience;
  • Ear and Hearing;
  • European Journal of Neuroscienece;
  • Hearing Research;
  • International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience;
  • Journal of Comparative Physiology;
  • Journal of Neurophysiology;
  • Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews;
  • Neuroscience Letters;
  • Physiology & Behavior;
  • PLoS ONE;
  • Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry;
  • Pharmacology,Biochemistry and Behavior;
  • Psychological Medicine;
  • Psychophysiology;
  • Science in China Series C: Life Sciences;
  • Progress in Biochemistry and Biophysics(in Chinese);
  • Acta Biophysica Sinica(in Chinese);
  • Advances in Psychological Science(in Chinese);
  • Acta Psychologica Sinica(in Chinese);
  • Science China;
  • National Medical Journal of China
  • Scientific Reports。

My research is focused on developing a fuller understanding of the interaction between auditory processing and auditory sensory gating. Of particular interest are neural substrates in the auditory brainstem and forebrain that contribute to sound localization, prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex, the precedence effect, and effects of auditory grouping on informational masking. The experiments are broadly based in neurophysiological, neuroanatomical, immunochemical, and psychophysical/behavioral techniques. For studies using animal subjects, electrophysiological works are often accomplished in whole animals and makes extensive use of single-unit and focal field potential recordings. Combinations of axonal tracing and immunochemical techniques are used to determine the functional connections of the neural circuits under studies. Computer-controlled automatic mazes are used to test visual and auditory discrimination performances. Current human projects involve the psychophysical studies on (1) the acoustic conditions that lead to fusion of sound gaps, (2) spatial release of acoustic informational (speech) masking, and (3) the role of acoustic flankers in attenuating the bounce-inducing effect. The advanced Tucker-Davis Technology System is used to create acoustic stimuli, run experimental procedures, and collect data. In addition to these projects on auditory processing and gating, my research extends to the limbic-cortical structures that contribute to startle modulation, emotional leaning, reversal learning, and motive-motor gating. I am also interested in animal models of schizophrenia. My research emphasizes the combination of the three complementary approaches: (1) establishing appropriate parallel human and animal psychophysical/behavioral models; (2) conducting comprehensive electrophysiological, neuroanatomical, immunochemical and even genetic experiments in animals, in research for multi-facet mechanisms; (3) building the theoretical models for conceptual explanation of the experimental discoveries.


(1) The temporal storage of acoustic information and the aging effect
Under a reverberant condition, listeners receive both the wavefront directly coming from a sound source and reflections of the source. If the delay time between the direct wave and a reflected wave (which is highly correlated with the source) is sufficiently short, signals of the direct sound wave can be perceptually integrated with those of the delayed reflection. For example, listeners can typically perceive a single “fused” sound image as coming from the site of the source without perceiving the distinct reflection coming from a location that is different from the source location. This phenomenon is called “the precedence effect”. However, because there is always a temporal gap between the source and the reflection, there must be certain mechanisms in the auditory system for bridging the temporal gap in achieving the lead-lag integration. 
Using the transient drop in interaural correlation between two correlated broadband noises at the two ears as the probe signal, we found that fine-structure information of broadband noises can be retained for over 20 ms in some younger listeners. This long-lasting information persistence cannot be explained by either the delay-line model or the peripheral-filter model. Our explanation is that when the auditory system receives sounds, fine-structure information of the received sounds can be faithfully stored for a short period of time, and during this period of time correlations between sound waves are calculated. This pre-attentive signal buffer at the central level must also be critical for higher-order central processes. Moreover, results of our psychoacoustic and ERP experiments indicate that the temporal storage of acoustic details is frequency dependent: for narrowband noises, the temporal storage declines as the center frequency becomes higher. We also found that the temporal storage of acoustic details is significantly reduced in older-adult listeners with clinically normal hearing. We propose that the age-related reduction of the ability to temporally store acoustic fine structures is related to the age-related difficulties in identifying sound sources in noisy, reverberant environments.

(2) Attribute capture
Results of our psychoacoustic and ERP-recording experiments indicate that the precedence effect is based on perceptual capture of attributes of the reflection. When a lagging sound is highly correlated with a leading sound (like a reflection highly correlated with its source), non-spatial attributes of the lagging sound are perceptually captured, but not suppressed, by the leading sound. Different attributes of the lagging sound have different capture thresholds. With the decrease of the delay time between the correlated leading and lagging sounds, more and more attributes of the lagging sound are perceptually captured (the loudness of the lagging sound progressively becomes weaker). When all the attributes of the lagging sound are perceptually captured by the leading sound, listener will not perceive any sound image as coming from the physical location of the lagging sound source but a single fused sound image as coming from the location of the leading sound source. Thus perceptual fusion of the leading and lagging sounds is not an “all-or-none” phenomenon and based on higher-order central processing.

(3) The effect of perceived spatial separation on release speech from informational masking
Under cocktail party conditions, listeners usually find it difficult to comprehend and participate in conversations, especially when other people are talking. Two factors contribute to this difficulty: 1) energetic masking of the target speech by non-target sounds, and 2) informational interference from irrelevant talkers (informational masking). We found that in both younger adults and older adults, perceived spatial separation induced by the precedence effect, does not substantially change the acoustics at the ears, but can specifically release speech (English or Chinese) from informational masking. Thus the precedence effect is important for reducing informational masking in noisy, reverberant listening conditions by perceptually grouping correlated sounds and segregating uncorrelated sounds. 
Interestingly, although the perceived spatial separation between target speech and masker causes similar releases from energetic masking for English speech and Chinese speech, it causes a larger release from informational masking for English speech than for Chinese speech, suggesting that Chinese, a tonal language with larger pitch-contour fluctuations, is more resistant to informational masking than English. 
Our recent studies have also shown that there is a significant correlation between the ability to temporally retain low-frequency (£ 400 Hz) fine-structure information and the ability to release speech from informational masking through attribute capture under a simulated reverberant condition. Moreover, the ability to release speech from informational masking at long source/reflection delays for target speech is significantly lower in older-adult listeners than in younger-adult listeners. This age difference, we think, is partially due to the aging difference in temporal storage of acoustic details.

(4) Effects of non-spatial cuing on releasing speech from informational masking
In a cocktail-party environment, human listeners are able to use both perceptual-level and cognitive-level cues to segregate the attended target speech from other background conversations. We found that at the cognitive level, priming the listener with part of the target Chinese speech in quiet can markedly improve the recognition of the remaining parts when the target speech and competing speech are presented at the same time. In addition, familiarity or knowledge of the voice characteristics of the target talker can also help the listener attend to the target talker when other talkers are present. These results suggest that both content cues and voice cues can be used by listeners to release speech from informational masking. 
Moreover, we found that listeners can also use speech-synchronized visual cues and speech-rate cues to significantly reduce informational masking of target speech. Thus we propose that in a cocktail-party environment, listeners can use various cues to facilitate perceptual segregation between target speech and masking speech, and how to integrate these cues under a specific situation should be under even-higher cognitive controls.

(5) Simulated phase-locking stimulation: an improved speech processing strategy for cochlear implants
Traditional speech-processing strategies used for cochlear implants, such as the Continuous Interleaved Sampling (CIS) strategy, extract only envelope information of narrow-band signals without utilizing phase information contained in sound signals. We have developed a new speech-processing strategy, the Simulated Phase-locking Stimulation (SPLS) strategy. In addition to extracting amplitude envelope from various frequency bands after band-pass filtering, this new strategy can extract phase information in speech. The advantages of the SPLS over the CIS are well confirmed by results of our psychoacoustic experiments, in which recognition of Chinese speech processed by the CIS strategy was compared with that of the SPLS strategy in normal-hearing listeners under either noise masking condition or speech masking condition. The new SPLS strategy is potentially useful in improving the speech-recognition performance of cochlear-implant users under cocktail party situations.

(6) Neural mechanisms underlying sensorimotor gating 
Detection of a non-startling acoustic event that is presented shortly before an intense startling sound can lead to inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex in both humans and animals. This phenomenon is called “prepulse inhibition”, and widely used as a model of sensorimotor gating. The prepulse inhibition reflects a gating function of reducing influence of disruptive inputs at the early (pre-attentive) stages of sensory processing. In humans, prepulse inhibition can be modulated by both attention and emotional responses to the prepulse, indicating that the early-stage gating processing can be "top-down" regulated by higher-order cognitive processes.
Using laboratory animals (rats), we have thoroughly studied the neural pathways that mediate acoustic startle, the neural pathways that mediate prepulse inhibition, the neural pathways that modulate prepulse inhibition, and the neural pathways that mediate auditory-conditioning potentiation of startle. Based on results of our systematic experimental studies and previous studies by other investigators, we have published three important review articles to summarize the current knowledge on the neural mechanisms underlying prepulse inhibition. These three reviews have been published in Psychopharmacology (2001), Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews (2002)andHearing Research (2002), respectively.
Our recent animal studies have for the first time shown that fear conditioning can modulate prepulse inhibition in rats. After a neutral acoustic prepulse is time-precisely combined with footshock, the prepulse becomes conditioned (biologically significant) and causes enhanced prepulse inhibition. Moreover, the conditioning-induced enhancement of prepulse inhibition depends on activity of metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 receptors. We have evidence to show that metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 receptors contribute to the early-phase of the long-term potentiation (LTP) recorded in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala under in vivo preparations. This new model for studying cognitive regulation of prepulse inhibition is also useful for studying both the cognitive and biological bases of schizophrenia (also see “(10) Animal models of schizophrenia”).

(7) Top-down modulation of rats’ prepulse inhibition
Using prepulse inhibition as the behavioral model for studying rats’ detection of transient acoustic signals, we found that rats are able to detect a sudden drop in inter-sound correlation with the considerably short duration threshold. These results suggest that rats can perceptually integrate correlated sounds waves, just like humans. In addition,  the rat’s detection of a sudden drop in inter-sound correlation can be improve by both perceptual learning and emotional learning, indicating that auditory processing of inter-sound correlations can be modulated by a top-down influence from higher-order cognitive processes. This model allows us to further investigate both the precedence effect and the perceived-spatial-separation effect using laboratory animals.

(8) Frequency-following responses to pain vocalization in rats 
In humans, brainstem frequency-following responses (FFRs), which are sustained potentials based on phase-locked neural activities, precisely preserve low-to-medium-frequency information of periodical sound waveforms. Interestingly, FFRs in humans can be modulated by both attention and language experience. 
For the first time, we found that in rats FFRs to the audible component of vocal expressions of pain by conspecifics  (rats’ “pain chatter”) can be recorded in not only the auditory midbrain, the inferior colliculus, but also the lateral nucleus of the amygdala. The rat’s FFRs to the pain chatter are remarkably resistant to noise masking.  
When both the pain chatter and a masking noise is presented to each of the rat’s two ears, introducing a disparity between the interaural time difference for the chatter and that for the interaurally correlated noise markedly enhances the fundamental-frequency component of the FFRs to the chatter. A further increase of the binaural enhancement of the FFRs in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala can be produced by blocking excitatory glutamate transmissions in the auditory association cortex. Thus the amygdala, which is critical for auditory emotional perception, auditory emotional learning, and fear-conditioning modulation of auditory coding, preserves detailed acoustic features of species-specific emotional calls. This signal preservation is affected by both bottom-up binaural processing and top-down cortical modulations.

(9) Neural mechanisms underlying binaural inhibitory responses in the auditory midbrain
Both sound localization and the precedence effect largely depend on binaural integration in the central auditory system. The inferior colliculus occupies a critical position for processing binaural information. In mammals, the majority of binaural neurons in the inferior colliculus are so-called EI neurons, which receive excitatory inputs from the contralateral ear and inhibitory inputs from the ipsilateral ear. We investigated the neural mechanisms underlying the formation of binaural inhibition in the inferior colliculus and found that the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, which is situated just below the inferior colliculus, is a key structure that shapes binaural inhibitory responses in the inferior colliculus by its inhibitory axonal projections to the inferior colliculus. Currently we are studying whether the binaural inhibitory mechanism is associated with the precedence effect and spatial unmasking.

(10) Animal models of schizophrenia
Human schizophrenics are characterized by both the deficit in the prefrontal-dysfunction-related flexibility and the reduction of prepulse inhibition. The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia emphasizes that certain early-life environmental factors have substantial influences upon the processes of brain maturation, and cause anatomical and functional abnormalities in the central nervous system. Accordingly, several animal models involving early-life manipulations are proposed. One of the early-life manipulations is isolation rearing after weaning. 
We found that rats with selective lesions of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex, including the infralimbic area or prelimbic area, perform poorly in reversal learning but not in acquisition learning in a rotating T maze. Moreover, our recent results show that isolation-reared rats without clozapine injection perform significantly worse than socially-reared rats in reversal learning but not in acquisition learning. Chronic injection of clozapine in isolation-reared rats significantly improves reversal learning. This rodent reversal-learning model is useful not only for studying neural abnormalities associated with isolation rearing, particularly the neural mechanisms underlying schizophrenia, but also for developing new antipsychotics. 
Moreover, we found that both prepulse inhibition and emotional-learning-induced enhancement of prepulse inhibition are much weaker in isolation-reared rats than those in socially-reared rats, and the prepulse inhibition enhancement depends on activity of metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 receptors. Because metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 receptors contribute to glutamatergic dysfunction observed in human patients of schizophrenia, we propose that we have advanced the prepulse-inhibition model for investigating both neural bases and cognitive features of schizophrenia.

List of Publications

Ding, Y., Xu, N., Gao, Y.Y., Wu, Z.M., Li, L. (2019) The role of the deeper layers of the superior colliculus in attentional modulations of prepulse inhibition. Behavioural Brain Research, 364, 106-113.

Huang, Y., Lu, H., Li, L. (2019). Human scalp evoked potentials related to the fusion between a sound source and its simulated reflection. PLoS ONE, 14(1): e0209173.

Hao, W., Wang, Q., Li, L., Qiao, Y., Gao, Z., Ni, D., Shang, Y. (2018). Effects of phase-locking deficits on speech recognition in older adults with presbycusis. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 10, Article 397.

Wu, C., Zheng, Y., Li, J., She, S., Peng, H., Li, L. (2018). Cortical gray matter loss, augmented vulnerability to speech-on-speech masking, and delusion in people with schizophrenia. Frontiers in Psychiatry, in press.

Wang, Q., Lu, H., Wu, Z.-M., Li, L. (2018). Neural representation of interaural correlation in human auditory brainstem: comparisons between temporal-fine structure and envelope. Hearing Research, 365, 165-173.

Wang, M., Kong, L., Zhang, C., Wu, X., & Li, L.  (2018). Speaking rhythmically improves speech recognition under “cocktail-party” conditions. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America,143 (4), EL255-EL259.

Zheng, Y., Wu, C., Li, J., Li, R., Peng, H., She, S., Ning, Y., Li, L. (2018). Schizophrenia Alters Intra-Network Functional Connectivity in the Caudate for Detecting Speech under Informational Speech Masking Conditions. BMC Psychiatry, 18:90.

Lu, L.-X., Bao, X.-H., Chen, J., Qu, T.-S., Wu, X.-H., Li, L. (2018). Emotionally conditioning the target-speech voice enhances recognition of the target speech under “cocktail-party” listening conditions. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 80 (4), 871-888.

Lei, M., Zhang, C.-X., Li, L. (2018). Neural correlates of perceptual separation-induced enhancement of prepulse inhibition of startle in humans. Scientific Reports, 8, 472.

Wang, Q., Li, L. (2018)Differences between auditory frequency-following responses and onset responses: intracranial evidence from rat inferior colliculus. Hearing Research, 357, 25-32.

Wu, Z. M., Yang, Z. G., Zhang, M. J., Bao, X. H., Han, F., & Li, L. (2018). The Role of N-methyl-d-aspartate Receptors and Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 in the Prepulse Inhibition Paradigms for Studying Schizophrenia: Pharmacology, Neurodevelopment, and Genetics. Behavioural Pharmacology 29 (1), 13-27

Cui, Z., Wang, Q., Gao, Y.Y., Wang, J., Wang, M.Y., Teng, P.F., Guan, Y.G., Zhou, J., Li, T.F., Luan, G.M., Li, L. (2017). Dynamic correlations between intrinsic connectivity and extrinsic connectivity of the auditory cortex in humans. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience,  doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2017.00407

Luo, L., Wang, Q., and Li, L.  (2017). Neural representations of concurrent sounds with overlapping spectra in rat inferior colliculus: comparisons between temporal-fine structure and envelope. Hearing Research, 353, 87-96. 

Lu, L.-X., Zhang, C.-X., Li, L. (2017). Mental imagery of face enhances face-sensitive event-related potentials to ambiguous visual stimuli. Biological Psychology, 129, 16-24.

Wang, Q., Li, L. (2017). Modelling envelope and temporal fine structure components of frequency-following responses in rat inferior colliculus. SCIENCE CHINA Technological Sciences, 60(7),966-973.

Li, J., Wu, C., Zheng, Y., Li, R., Li, X., She, S., Wu, H., Peng, H., Ning, Y., Li, L. (2017). Schizophrenia affects speech-induced functional connectivity of the superior temporal gyrus under cocktail-party listening conditions. Neuroscience, 359, 248-257.

Yang, N.-B.; Tian, Q.; Fan, Y.; Bo, Q.-J., Zhang, L., Li, L., Wang, C.-Y. (2017). Deficits of perceived spatial separation induced prepulse inhibition in patients with schizophrenia: relationships to symptoms and neurocognition. BMC Psychiatry, 17 (1) 135-147.

Wu, C., Zheng, Y., Li, J., Zhang, B., Li, R., Wu, H., She, S., Liu, S., Peng, H., Ning, Y., Li, L. (2017). Activation and functional connectivity of the left inferior temporal gyrus during visual speech priming in healthy listeners and listeners with schizophrenia. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 11, 1-13.

Gao, Y.-Y., Schneider, B.A., Li, L. (2017). The effects of the binocular disparity differences between targets and maskers on visual search. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 79 (2), 459-472.

Gao, Y.-Y., Wang, Q., Ding, Y., Wang, C.-M., Li H.-F., Wu, X.-H., Qu, T.-S., Li, L. (2017). Selective attention enhances beta band cortical oscillation to speech under “cocktail party” listening conditions. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience,11, 1-10.

Wu, C., Zheng, Y., Li, J., Wu, H., She, S., Liu, S., Ning, Y., Li, L. (2017). Brain substrates underlying auditory speech priming in healthy listeners and listeners with schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine, 47(5), 837-852.

Wu, Z.-M., Ding, Y., Jia, H.-X., Li, L. (2016). Different effects of isolation-rearing and neonatal mk-801 treatment on attentional modulations of prepulse inhibition of startle in rats. Psychopharmacology, 233(17), 3089-3102.

Liu, Z.-L., Wang, Q., You, Y., Yin, P., Ding, H., Bao, X.H., Yang, P.-C., Lu, H., Gao, Y.-Y., Li, L. (2016). The role of the temporal pole in modulating primitive auditory memory. Neuroscience Letters, 619, 196-202.

Zheng, Y., Wu, C., Li, J., Wu, H., She, S., Liu, S., Wu, H., Mao, L., Ning, Y., and Li, L. (2016) Brain substrates of perceived spatial separation between speech sources under simulated reverberant listening conditions in schizophrenia.Psychological Medicine, 46, 477-491.

Zhang, J., Luo, H., Pace, H., Li, L., Li, Liu, B. (2016) Psychophysical and neural correlates of noised-induced tinnitus in animals: intra- and inter-auditory and non-auditory brain structure studies. Hearing Research, 334, 7-19.

Zhang, C., Arnott S. R., Rabaglia, C., Avivi-Reich, M., Qi, J., Wu, X., Li, L., Schneider, B. (2016) Attentional modulation of informational masking on early cortical representations of speech signals. Hearing Research, 331, 119-130.

Wang, Q., Li, L. (2015) Auditory midbrain representation of a break in interaural correlation. (2015). Journal of Neurophysiology, 114: 2353-2367.

Kong, L.Z., Xie, Z.L., Lu, L.X., Qu, T.S., Wu, X.H., Yan, J. and Li, L. (2015). Similar impacts of the interaural delay and interaural correlation on binaural gap detection. PLOS ONE, 10(6): e0126342. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0126342.

Du, Y., He, Y., Arnott, S.R., Ross, B., Wu, X.-H., Li, L., Alain, C. (2015). Rapid tuning of auditory “what” and “where” pathways by training. Cerebral Cortex, 25, 496-506.

Yu, B., Wang, X.-D., Ma, L., Li, L., Li, H.-F. (2015) The complex pre-execution stage of auditory cognitive control: ERPs evidence from stroop tasks.PLoS ONE, 10(9): 0137674. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0137649.

Ezzatian, P.; Pichora-Fuller, K.; Li, Li., Schneider, B.A. (2015). Delayed stream segregation in older adults: More than just informational masking. Ear and Hearing, 36, 482-484.

Kong, L.-Z, Xiong, C., Li, L., and Yan, J. (2014). Frequency-specific corticofugal modulation of the dorsal cochlear nucleus in mice. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 8(125), 1-7.

Zhang, C.-X., Lu, L.-X., Wu, X.-H., Li, L. (2014). Attentional modulation of the early cortical representation of speech signals in informational or energetic masking. Brain and Language, 135, 85-95.

Lei, M., Luo, L., Qu, T.-S., Jia, H.-X., Li, L. (2014). Perceived location specificity in perceptual separation-induced but not fear conditioning-induced enhancement of prepulse inhibition in rats. Behavioural Brain Research, 269, 87–94.

Gao, Y.-Y., Cao, S.-Y., Qu, T.-S., Wu, X.-H., Li, H.-F., Zhang, J.-S., Li, L. (2014). Voice-associated static face image releases speech from informational masking. PsyCh Journal, 3, 113-120.

Wu, Z.-M., Chen, M.-L., Wu, X.-H., Li, L. (2014). Interaction between auditory system and motor system in speech perception. Neuroscience Bulletin, 30(3): 490–496.

Li, H.-H., Kong, L.-Z., Wu, X.-H., Li, L. (2013). Primitive auditory memory is correlated with spatial unmasking that is based on direct-reflection integration. PLoS ONE, 8 (4) e63106.

Qu, T.-S., Cao, S.-Y., Chen, X., Huang, Y., Li, L., Wu, X.-H., Schneider, B.A. (2013). Aging effects on detection of spectral changes induced by a break in sound correlation. Ear and Hearing, 34, 280-287.

Wu, C., Cao, S.-Y., Zhou, Wu, X.-H., Li, L. (2013a). Temporally pre-presented lipreading cues release speech from informational masking. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 133, EL281-EL285.

Wu, C., Li, H.-H., Tian, Q., Wu, X.-H., Wang, C.-Y., Li, L.(2013b). Disappearance of the unmasking effect of temporally pre-presented lipreading cues on speech recognition in people with chronic schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 150, 594-595.

Du, Y., Wang, Q., Zhang, Y., Wu, X.-H., Li, L. (2012). Perceived target-masker separation unmasks responses of lateral amygdala to the emotionally conditioned target sounds in awake rats. Neuroscience, 225, 249-257.

Kong, L.-Z., Xie, Z.-L., Lu, L.-X., Wu, X.-H., and Li, L. (2012). Sensitivity to a break in interaural correlation is co-modulated by intensity level and interaural delay. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 132, EL114-EL118.

Chen, J., Li, H.-H., Li, L., Wu, X.-H., Moore, B. (2012). Informational masking of speech produced by speech-like sounds without linguistic content. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 131, 2914-2926.

Wu, C., Cao, S.-Y., Zhou, F.-C., Wang, C.-Y., Wu, X.-H., Li, L. (2012a). Masking of speech in people with first-episode schizophrenia and people with chronic schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 134, 33-41.

Wu, M.-H., Li, H.-H., Hong, Z.-L., Xian, X.-C., Li, J.-Y., Wu, X.-H., Li, L. (2012b). Effects of aging on the ability to benefit from prior knowledge of message content in masked speech recognition. Speech Communication, 54, 529–542.

Wu, M.-H., Li, H.-H., Gao, Y.-Y., Lei, M., Teng, X.-B., Wu, X.-H., Li, L. (2012c), Adding irrelevant information to the content prime reduces the prime-induced unmasking effect on speech recognition. Hearing Research, 283, 136-143.

Wu, X.-H., Yang, Z.-G., Huang, Y., Chen, J., Li, L., Daneman, M., Schneider, B.A.(2012d) Cross-language differences in informational masking of speech by speech: English versus Mandarin Chinese. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 54, 1506-1524.

Ezzatian, P., Li, L., Pichora-Fuller, K., Schneider, B. (2012). The effect of energetic and informational masking on the time-course of stream segregation: Evidence that streaming depends on vocal fine structure cues. Language and Cognitive Processes, 27, 1056-1088.

Wang, J.-H., Chen, Y.-M., Carlson, S., Li, L., Hu, X.-T., Ma, Y.-Y. (2012). Interactive effects of morphine and scopolamine, MK-801, propanolol on spatial working memory in rhesus monkeys. Neuroscience Letters, 523, 119-124.

Du, Y., Wu, X.-H., Li, L. (2011a) Differentially organized top-down modulation of prepulse inhibition of startle, Journal of Neuroscience, 31 13644-13653.

Du, Y., Kong, L.-Z., Wang, Q., Wu, X.-H., and Li, L. (2011b). Auditory frequency-following response: a neurophysiological measure for studying the “cocktail-party problem”. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 2046-2057.

Du, Y., He, Y., Ross, B., Bardouille, T., Wu, X.-H., Li, L., Alain, C. (2011c). Human auditory cortex activity shows additive effects of spectral and spatial cues during speech segregation. Cerebral Cortex, 21, 698-707.

Huang, Y., Li, J.-Y., Zou, X.-F., Qu, T.-S., Wu, X.-H., Mao, L.-H., Wu, Y.-H., Li, L. (2011). Perceptual fusion tendency of speech sounds. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 1003-1014.

Wang, M.-Y., Wu, X.-H., Li, L., and Schneider, B. (2011). The effects of age and interaural delay on detecting a change in interaural correlation: The role of temporal jitter. Hearing Research, 275, 139-149.

Cao, S.-Y., Li, L., and Wu, X.-H. (2011). Improvement of intelligibility of ideal binary-masked noisy speech by adding background noise. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 129, 2227-2236.

Ezzatian, P., Li, L., Pichora-Fuller, K., Schneider, B. (2011). The effect of priming on release from informational masking is equivalent for younger and older adults. Ear and Hearing, 32, 84-96.

Yan, J. and Li, L. (2011). An overview of the neural circuitry for sound processing (Editorial). Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 2045.

Huang, Y., Xu, L.-J., Wu, X.-H., Li, L. (2010). The effect of voice cuing on releasing speech from informational masking disappears in older adults. Ear and Hearing, 31, 579–583.

Du, Y., Wu, X.-H., Li, L. (2010). Emotional learning enhances stimulus-specific top-down modulation of sensorimotor gating in socially reared rats but not isolation-reared rats. Behavioural Brain Research, 206, 192-201.

Huang, Y., Huang, Q., Chen, X., Wu, X.-H., Li, L. (2009a). Transient auditory storage of acoustic details is associated with release of speech from informational masking in reverberant conditions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35, 1618-1628.

Huang, Y., Wu, X.-H., Li, L. (2009b). Detection of the break in interaural correlation is affected by interaural delay, aging, and center frequency. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 126, 300-309.

Li, L., Huang, J., Wu, X.-H., Qi, J.G., Schneider, B. (2009a). The effects of aging and interaural delay on the detection of a break in the interaural correlation between two sounds. Ear and Hearing, 30, 273-286.

Li, L., Du, Y., Li, N.-X., Wu, X.-H., Wu, Y.-H. (2009b). Top-down modulation of prepulse inhibition the startle reflex in humans and rats. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 33, 1157-1167.

Li, L., Yan, J. (2009c). The First International Symposium on Neurobehavioral Science in China (Editorial). Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 33, 1155-1156.

Du, Y., Huang, Q., Wu, X.-H., Galbraith, G.C., Li, L. (2009a). Binaural unmasking of frequency-following responses in rat amygdala. Journal of Neurophysiology, 101, 1647-1659.

Du, Y., Ma, T.-F., Wang, Q., Wu, X.-H., Li, L. (2009b). Two crossed axonal projections contribute to binaural unmasking of frequency-following responses in rat inferior colliculus. European Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 1779-1789.

Du, Y., Li, J.-Y., Wu, X.-H., Li, L. (2009c). Precedence effect-induced enhancement of prepulse inhibition in socially reared but not isolation-reared rats. Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience, 9, 44-58.

Chen, J., Wu, X.-H., Li, L., Chi, H.-S. (2009). Simulated phase-locking stimulation: An improved speech processing strategy for cochlear implant. Journal for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology and its Related Specialties, 71, 221-227.

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Huang, Y., Huang, Q., Chen, X., Qu, T.-S., Wu, X.-H., Li, L. (2008b). Perceptual integration between target speech and target-speech reflection reduces masking for target-speech recognition in younger adults and older adults. Hearing Research, 244, 51-65.

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Zheng, J.-W., Wu, X.-H., Li, L. (2008). Metabotropic glutamate receptors subtype 5 are necessary for the enhancement of auditory evoked potentials in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala by tetanic stimulation of the auditory thalamus. Neuroscience, 152, 254-264.

Kong, L.Z., Wu, X.-H., Li, Li. (2008). The role of hippocampus in the context-specific extinction of cue fear. Neural Regeneration Research, 12, 1386-1390.

Yang, Z.-G., Chen, J., Huang, Q., Wu, X.-H., Wu, Y.-H., Schneider, B.A., Li, L. (2007). The effect of voice cuing on releasing Chinese speech from informational masking. Speech Communication, 49, 892-904.

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Schneider, B.A., Li, L., Daneman, M. (2007). How competing speech interferes with speech comprehension in everyday listening situations. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, 18, 559-572.

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Li, N.-X., Wu, X.-H., Li, L. (2007). Chronic administration of clozapine alleviates reversal learning impairment in isolation reared rats. Behavioural Pharmacology, 18, 135-145.

Zou, D., Huang, J., Wu, X.-H., and Li, L. (2007). Metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 receptors modulate fear-conditioning induced enhancement of prepulse inhibition in rats. Neuropharmacology, 52, 476-486.

Huang, J., Yang, Z.-G., Ping, J.-L., Liu, X., Wu, X.-H., Li, L. (2007). The influence of the perceptual or fear learning on rats’prepulse inhibition induced by changes in the correlation between two spatially separated noise sounds. Hearing Research, 223, 1-10.

Yeomans, J.S., Lee, J., Yeomans, M.H., Steidl, S., and Li, L. (2006). Midbrain pathways for prepulse inhibition and startle activation in rat. Neuroscience, 142, 921-929.

Li, N.-X., Ping, J.-L., Wu, X.-H., Li, L. (2006). Neurodevelopmental animal models of Schizophrenia, Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation, 10, 154-157.

Du, Y., Wu, X.-H., Li, L. (2006). Mechanisms of bacterial meningitis-related deafness. Drug Discovery Today: Disease Mechanisms, 3, 115-118.

Huang, J., Xihong Wu, X.-H., John Yeomans, J.S., and Li, L. (2005). Opposite effects of tetanic stimulation of the auditory thalamus or auditory cortex on the acoustic startle reflex in awake rats. European Journal of Neuroscience, 21, 1943-1956.

He, S.-C., Huang, J., Wu, X.-H., and Li, L. (2005). Glutamate and GABAB transmissions in lateral amygdala are involved in startle-like EMG potentiation caused by activation of auditory thalamus. Neuroscience Letters, 374, 113-118.

Li, L., Qi, J.G., He, Y., Alain, C., and Schneider, B. (2005). Attribute capture in the precedence effect for long-duration noise sounds. Hearing Research, 202, 235-247.

Wu, X-H, Wang, C., Chen, J., Qu, H-W, Li, W-R, Wu, Y-H, Schneider, B.A, and Li, L. (2005). The effect of perceived spatial separation on informational masking of Chinese speech. Hearing Research, 199, 1-10.

Li, L., Daneman, M., Qi, J.G., and Schneider, B. A. (2004). Does the information content of an irrelevant source differentially affect speech recognition in younger and older adults? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 30, 1077-1091.

Chen, J., Wang, C., Qu, H.-W., Li, W.-R., Wu, Y.-H., Wu, X.-H., Schneider, B.A, and Li, L. (2004). Perceived spatial separation induced by the precedence effect releases Chinese speech from informational masking. Canadian Acoustics, 32, 186-187.

Steidl, S., Faerman, P., Li, L. and Yeomans J.S. (2004). Kynurenate in the pontine reticular formation inhibits acoustic and trigeminal nucleus-evoked startle, but not vestibular nucleus-evoked startle. Neuroscience, 126, 127-136.

Jiang, M.-L., Han, T.-Z., Pang, W., Li, L. (2004). Gender- and age-specific impairment of rats' performance in Morris water maze following prenatal exposure to the MRI magnetic field. Brain Research, 995, 140-144.

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Lin, C-M, Wan, X., Zhao, W., Ma, C., Ma, C-F, Gao, Y., Zhou, Y., Yeomans, J.S., and Li, L. (2002). Enhancement of electrically evoked startle-like responses by tetanic stimulation of the superior colliculus. NeuroReport, 13, 1769-1773.

Li, L. and Yue, Q. (2002). Auditory gating processes and binaural inhibition in the inferior colliculus. Hearing Research, 168, 113-124.

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Steidl, S., Li, L., and Yeomans, J.S. (2001) Conditioned brain-stimulation reward attenuates the acoustic startle reflex in rats. Behavioral Neuroscience, 115, 710-717.

Li, L., Steidl, S., and Yeomans, J.S. (2001). Contributions of the vestibular nucleus and vestibulospinal tract to the startle reflex. Neuroscience, 106, 811-821.

Li, L. and Yeomans, J.S. (2000). Using intracranial electrical stimulation to study the timing of prepulse inhibition. Brain Research Protocols, 5, 67-74.

Li, L. and Frost, B.J. (2000). Azimuthal directional sensitivity of prepulse inhibition of the pinna startle reflex in decerebrate rats. Brain Research Bulletin, 51, 95-100.

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